Maternal Deprivation Theory, Bowlby.

The Maternal Deprivation Theory was developed by John Bowlby (1951) and focuses on how the effects of early experiences may interfere with the usual process of attachment formation. Bowlby proposed that separation from the mother or mother-substitute has a serious effect on psychological development. Bowlby famously said that ‘mother-infant love in infancy and childhood is more important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ Being separated from a mother in early childhood can have serious consequences according to Bowlby.

Stages of Attachment identified by Schaffer.

Even though the time after birth is a very special, important time for parents to bond with their new baby, the overall process of the formation of attachments takes longer in human infants, and it is around 7 to 8 months before babies how their real first attachments. Schaffer and Emerson identified that infants go through a number of stages of attachment.

Reciprocity and Interactional Synchrony

Attachment is a two-way, enduring, emotional tie between two people (usually and infant and their primary caregiver). An attachment is usually shown in the behaviour between two people. An attachment between an infant and primary caregiver is usually reciprocal (responding to the action of another with a similar action). This attachment (tie) usually develops in set stages within a fairly set timescale.

Maternal Deprivation Theory, Bowlby.

Maternal Deprivation Theory, John Bowlby (Description, AO1): The Maternal Deprivation Theory was developed by John Bowlby (1951) and focuses on how the effects of early experiences may interfere with the […]

The Evolutionary Theory of Attachment

There are two main explanations of infant attachment; The Learning Theory of Attachment, and the Evolutionary Theory of Attachment. The Evolutionary Theory of Attachment as put forward by John Bowlby […]

The Role of the Father, Multiple Attachments

This page focuses on research into the role of the father in the formation of multiple attachments. Particular attention is paid to the parent-infant attachment and researched by Schaffer and Emerson (1964), The role of the father as investigated by Grossman (2002) and father’s and primary caregivers as researched by Field (1978). The page also includes an evaluation of the research into the role of the father and attachment formation with infants.

Stages of Attachment identified by Schaffer.

A description of the different stages of attachment as outlined by Schaffer and Emerson (1964) including; the Asocial Stage Indiscriminate Stage, the Specific Attachments Stage and the Multiple Attachments Stage . The description focuses on the longitudinal study carried out in Glasgow. An evaluation of this study is also included.

Reciprocity and Interactional Synchrony

Definition of attachment and a description and evaluation of research into reciprocity and interactional synchronisation. Description focuses on research from Meltzoff and Moore 1997 and looks at how infants mirror caregivers interactions.