- Sex and gender, sex-role stereotypes.
- Androgyny and measuring androgyny including the Bem Sex Role Inventory
- The role of chromosomes and hormones (testosterone, oestrogen and oxytocin) in sex and gender. Atypical sex chromosome patterns: Klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner’s syndrome
- Cognitive explanations of gender development, Kohlberg’s theory, gender identity, gender stability and gender consistency; gender schema theory
- Psychodynamic explanations of gender development, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, Oedipus complex; Electra complex; identification and internalisation
- Social learning theory as applied to gender development. The influence of culture and media on gender roles
- Atypical gender development: gender identity disorder; biological and social explanations for gender identity disorder