Secure and insecure attachments are examples of a particular type of style of attachment bond that may be established between any two individuals (usually the mother and infant).
There are two main explanations of infant attachment; The Learning Theory of Attachment, and the Evolutionary Theory of Attachment.
The Evolutionary Theory of Attachment as put forward by John Bowlby which focus on the biological processes in the formation of infant and primary caregiver attachments.
There are two main explanations of attachment formation; the Learning Theory of attachment which states that all attachments are learned and, the Evolutionary Explanation of Attachment which states that all attachments are formed on the basis of a genetic, innate process.
Lorenz, animal studies of attachment: Lorenz’s research investigates the Evolutionary Explanation of attachment suggesting that infants are pre-programmed to form an attachment from the second that they are born. The findings from Lorenz’s research (as outlined below) offers support for the idea that infants have an attachment gene and that they imprint on a caregiver not long after birth.
One of the most important questions attachment research has to answer concerns over who infants become attached to. What is the role of the Father? What are the multiple attachments that infants form and why are these attachments important?
Even though the time after birth is a very special, important time for parents to bond with their new baby, the overall process of the formation of attachments takes longer in human infants, and it is around 7 to 8 months before babies how their real first attachments. Schaffer and Emerson identified that infants go through a number of stages of attachment.
Attachment is a two-way, enduring, emotional tie between two people (usually and infant and their primary caregiver). An attachment is usually shown in the behaviour between two people. An attachment between an infant and primary caregiver is usually reciprocal (responding to the action of another with a similar action). This attachment (tie) usually develops in set stages within a fairly set timescale.
This page focuses on the treatments associated with the Cognitive approach and depression. The Cognitive treatments take the form of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and look at addressing the faulty/irrational and dysfunctional thinking believed to be held by the patients.
Beck’s Negative Triad: Beck believed that depressed people think as they do because their thinking is biased towards negative interpretations of the world and they lack a perceived sense of control.
How they work: Anti-depressants work by raising levels of Serotonin in the brain (as low levels of Serotonin have been linked with an increased likelihood of OCD). In “normal” brains, Serotonin is constantly being released from the nerve endings, stimulating the adjacent neurons. However, sometimes the mechanism fails and the Serotonin is reabsorbed into the nerve ending before it can stimulate the neighbouring neuron. Prozac works by reducing the rate of re-absorption meaning that Serotonin levels don’t drop and the patient’s mood can remain constant (they are less likely to suffer from obsessive thoughts and compulsions). Prozac is usually taken over the course of weeks, months or even years and as well as being successful in treating obsessive compulsive disorder.