The cognitive interview was developed by Fisher & Geiselman (1992) as a series of memory retrieval and communication techniques to improve recall in police interviews.
There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). Many psychologists believe that anxiety affects the accuracy of eyewitness testimony in a negative way (decreases the accuracy), whilst others believe that anxiety can improve the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.
The Effects of Misleading Information on the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony (Leading Questions) Description, AO1 Research into the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony – Leading Questions: Loftus and Palmer (1974) Elizabeth […]
The failure to retrieve memories (retrieval failure), with explanations of forgetting focusing on the idea that we may not be able to remember a memory because;
a) it is no longer available in the memory store,
b) there is an issue retrieving the memory.
The Multi-Store model of memory states that LTM has an unlimited capacity, and memories have a duration of potentially a lifetime. However, we know by experience that we forget information stored in the LTM. But does that mean the memories are gone (availability), or we just can’t reach them (accessibility)?
Baddeley & Hitch’s (1974) Working Memory Model (WMM) arose out of criticisms aimed at the Multi-Store Model (MSM), particularly the idea that STM was a unitary store – to test this Baddeley and Hitch devised the dual-task technique.
(1) Episodic memory (part of the explicit LTM – (conscious))
- Personal experiences (episodes/events) E.g. memory of your first day at school, family holiday etc…
- Specific details of event (who was there, time and place)
- Context (what happened before/after, why the event happened)
- Emotions (felt at the time)
AO1, Definition of ‘Memory’: The process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past. This includes fleeting (short term) memories as well as memories that last for longer (long term). Research has identified a number of key differences between short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in terms of the way these types of memory work.
The quality of a child’s first attachment is crucial because this template will powerfully affect the nature of their future relationships (the internal working model). To learn more about the Internal Working Model as proposed by John Bowlby.
The Maternal Deprivation Theory was developed by John Bowlby (1951) and focuses on how the effects of early experiences may interfere with the usual process of attachment formation. Bowlby proposed that separation from the mother or mother-substitute has a serious effect on psychological development. Bowlby famously said that ‘mother-infant love in infancy and childhood is more important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health.’ Being separated from a mother in early childhood can have serious consequences according to Bowlby.
Cross-Cultural Variations in Attachment Definition: The ways members of a society/culture vary in terms of their social practices (child-rearing). These variations, in turn, can effect infant development and behaviour. This can lead to cultural differences in attachment type.